If you want to keep your data safe, and not hosted by someone else, NextCloud is a great app to try.
In this post I’ll show you what is NextCloud and how to install it on your Raspberry Pi.
There are two methods to install NextCloud on a Raspberry Pi :
– By installing NextCloudPi, a custom image with everything ready to use.
– Or by Installing the NextCloud files on an existing Raspberry Pi OS.
After a short introduction about the NextCloud features, I’ll give you the step-by-step installation guide for both versions.
This way you can follow the one that fit the best your needs.
Finally, I’ll give you a few tips to start with NextCloud.
I will get back to this later, but to store your files, I recommend keeping them on a USB drive rather than an SD card. Personally, I like a giant USB key because it’s very convenient for the Raspberry Pi (look at this one on Amazon), but any cheap external hard drive will be better than a SD card (I’m using this one for my backups).
If you are lost in all these new words and abbreviations, request my free Raspberry Pi glossary here (PDF format)!
What is NextCloud?
You probably know Dropbox or Google Drive.
Basically, the goal of NextCloud is to offer the same thing, but keeping the control of data on your server.
And it’s free!
You may also know OwnCloud, it’s the same thing (it’s even the same developer).
You can install NextCloud on many platforms, including Linux and therefore the Raspberry Pi.
NextCloud offer many features as soon as you install it:
- Main features:
- Files hosting
- Pictures manager
- Tasks manager
- News feed reader
- Desktop and mobile clients for automatic synchronization
- Some integration is possible (calendar, mail, LDAP …)
- Users and rights management
- HTTPS and server side encryption
It’s already a good tool, but that’s not all 🙂
You can download and install extensions (or “Apps”) to add new features from the community.
For example, I’m using the “Passwords” extension to store my passwords safely on my network.
To check the apps available before installing NextCloud, you can check the NextCloud Apps store here.
As many of the open-source apps out there, NextCloud code is available on GitHub.
On the official website, you can also find appliances for specific needs : Virtual Machine, Docker image or Snap package.
For Raspberry Pi, we’ll use the source code and the NextCloudPi image, a custom Raspbian image to simplify the NextCloud installation.
Docker can also be another solution if you want to try (docker pull NextCloud), I didn’t test it.
The easiest way: Install NextCloudPi
What is NextCloudPi?
NextCloudPi is a custom image of Raspbian Lite, with NextCloud and all the dependencies preinstalled on it.
So it’s easy to get started with NextCloudPi.
You can check the NextCloudPi website here for more information.
It’s the perfect method of you want to try NextCloud or use a Raspberry Pi mainly for this.
You can always install other things after, as it’s a classic Raspbian Lite distribution.
The first thing to do is to download the latest version of NextCloudPi for the installation :
- Download the Raspberry Pi version of NextCloudPi from the OwnYourBits server
There are two versions available: RPi or RPi_BerryBoot
I’ll show you with the first one
- Click on the RPi folder and download the image file on your computer (ex: NextCloudPi_RPi_03-09-19.tar.bz2)
- Extract the image from the archive
It depends on your operating system, but probably something like right-click > Extract here
On Windows, you’ll need WinRAR or 7zip to extract it
Flash NextCloudPi on the SD card
Now that you have downloaded the image, we can flash it on a new SD card:
- If needed, download and install Etcher
Etcher is a free tool to easily flash SD card with any Linux image
- Start Etcher, a windows like this one shows up
- Click on the first button and browse to the image location
- Insert your SD card in your computer and select it in the second item (automatically done by Etcher generally)
- Then click on “Flash!” to start the SD card creation
- After a few minutes, your SD card is ready to use
First boot with NextCloudPi
Insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi and start it.
After a few seconds, you’ll get the login prompt:
Use the default Raspbian login and password:
- Login: pi
- Password: raspberry
Then you have to configure the network :
- Ethernet: it’s working directly if you have a DHCP server
- Wi-Fi: You need to use raspi-config to configure it
Then go into Network options > Wi-Fi and follow the setup wizard
Finally, I recommend starting the SSH service and use it to finish the installation:
- Start the SSH service
sudo service ssh start
- Find the Raspberry Pi IP address
- Connect via SSH
On Windows, you’ll need to install a software like Putty
On Linux/macOS it’s available directly: ssh pi@IP
Login and password are the same as above
Update the system
From there, I recommend updating the system.
It’s not mandatory if you are doing a quick test of NextCloudPi, but as it’s a custom image, it can be a little outdated.
To do this, use the following commands:
sudo apt update
sudo apt upgrade
You’re now ready to move to the NextCloud configuration.
NextCloudPi web interface
NextCloudPi is available through a web interface that you can use to configure it.
I’ll show you how to enable it, but you can absolutely use the text configuration tool directly if you want.
- Run the NextCloudPi configuration tool
- Click on “CONFIG”
- Scroll down to “Enable WebUI” and press enter
- Confirm by writing “yes” in the confirmation window
- Exit the configuration tool
Apache restarts and the web interface is now available at: https://<RASPBERRY_IP>:4443
This is just the NextCloudPi configuration page, not the NextCloud page.
- Open the https://IP:4443 URL in your browser
- You’ll probably get an HTTPS certificate error, ignore it for now
You can always install a Let’s Encrypt certificate later if you want
- A login form shows up
Enter the default credentials:
- Login: ncp
- Password: ownyourbits
- You’ll now see the activation page, it looks like this:
- Both usernames are “ncp” but you need to note the two passwords for the following steps
The first one is the NextCloudPi password, to configure NextCloudPi
The second one is the NextCloud password, to access NextCloud
- Then click on “Activate”
- The NextCloud activation starts
In my first test it took 15min, and the second one it was instant
So wait if needed, but I probably had an issue in my first install
- Finally, you get the success message, NextCloud is ready to use
NextCloud first login
If I remember correctly, you are redirected to the ncp config page
But you don’t need it for now.
You can access NextCloud directly at https://<RASPBERRY_IP>
Enter the login (ncp) and the second password you noted in the previous steps.
Then click Log in.
The main NextCloud page shows up in your browser:
Congrats! NextCloud is ready to use
I’ll come back to the NextCloud usage in the last part of this guide
One last thing you can do before starting to use NextCloud is to update NextCloudPi.
On the login screen we had a warning saying that NextCloudPi is outdated.
Now that NextCloud is configured, you can do this update (I was unable to do it before that).
The update is easy, just run:
If you’re happy with this installation method you can skip the following part and read the last one about the NextCloud usage.
Alternative: install NextCloud on Raspberry Pi OS
Why install it on Raspbian?
This second method is perfect if you want to add NextCloud to your current Raspberry Pi installation, without losing anything you already have
With this way, you can also keep the control about everything (for example Apache and PHP versions, Raspbian version, NextCloud version).
Also, if you already have Raspbian and Apache/PHP, you can quickly test NextCloud by extracting files in your /var/www folder, and remove it immediately if NextCloud is not for you.
Install Raspberry Pi OS
If you don’t have Raspbian yet, you need to start here.
Follow this Raspbian installation guide if you need help in doing this.
But basically you need to:
- Download Raspbian (Lite is fine)
- Flash the SD card with Etcher
- Insert the SD card in the Raspberry Pi and start it
- Do the network configuration
- Update the system
- Enable SSH
Then you’re ready to move to the next step.
Before installing NextCloud, there are a few prerequisites to have on your system.
NextCloud needs a web server with Apache, MySQL (MariaDB) and PHP
And it also needs a few PHP modules.
Use the following commands to install everything
sudo apt install apache2 mariadb-server libapache2-mod-php
sudo apt install php-gd php-json php-mysql php-curl php-mbstring php-intl php-imagick php-xml php-zip
Wait a few minutes for the installation to finish, and you’re now ready to install NextCloud.
Notice: At the time I write these lines, the latest version of NextCloud needs PHP 7.1, and Raspbian only have PHP 7.0 available in the repository.
I made the choice to take an older version of NextCloud, compatible with PHP 7.0.
But you can also try to install PHP 7.1 from sources if you absolutely want the latest version
You now need to download and extract the NextCloud archive:
- Go to the Apache web folder
- Get the NextCloud link here
Remember to check the PHP requirements to make sure your current installation is compatible with the version you take
- In my case, I downloaded the 15.0.8 version
sudo wget https://download.nextcloud.com/server/releases/nextcloud-15.0.8.zip
- Extract the file with unzip
sudo unzip nextcloud-15.0.8.zip
I’m showing you with the zip file as it’s easier to extract, but you can also get the .tar.bz2 archive from the NextCloud website
- As we use root to extract files, we need to change the folder permissions to allow Apache to access it:
sudo chmod 750 nextcloud -R
sudo chown www-data:www-data nextcloud -R
NextCloud is almost ready to use, but we firstly need to create a MySQL database to store its data.
After the MariaDB server installation, it creates a root user you can use only from the command line.
For NextCloud, I recommend creating a new user and a dedicated database:
- Connect to MySQL with root
- Create the new user
CREATE USER 'nextcloud' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';Replace “password” by a strong password
- Create the new database
CREATE DATABASE nextcloud;
- Give all permissions to the new user on this database
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON nextcloud.* TO 'nextcloud'@localhost IDENTIFIED BY ‘password’;
Same thing here, just replace “password”with the previous password
- Save and exit
The database is ready for the end of the NextCloud installation.
You can now access the NextCloud configuration page and finish the setup:
- Open the following URL in your browser: https://IP/nextcloud
Replace the “IP” with the Raspberry Pi IP address
- A form like this shows up (first part):
Choose a username and password for NextCloud
- The second part looks like this:
Enter the credentials we just created in MySQL
– User: nextcloud
– Password: “password” (your password)
– Database: nextcloud
– Host: localhost
- Then click “Finish setup” and wait a few minutes
You’ll directly get to the NextCloud home page.
It looks like the one with NextCloudPi, but there are fewer apps enabled by default.
In the main menu you only get these icons:
All the other apps can be enabled from the NextCloud app store (Calendar, Contacts, …).
In this part, I’ll give you a little more details about the NextCloud interface.
So you can start quickly to use it, and discover everything in a few minutes.
The main interface is intuitive, and you’ll probably find what you are looking for without more explanations.
As I already said, NextCloud use apps to provide features, like on your phone.
In the top bar, you’ll find the main menu, to switch to another App.
Each app has a custom design, with or without left menu to access more subsections.
In the following sections I will introduce the three main submenus of the administration panel.
To access it, click on the icon at the extreme right in the top bar (your avatar, probably the first letter of the username for now).
In the menu, you’ll get mainly 3 options:
- Settings: to configure everything on NextCloud, from your personal profile to the server configuration
- Apps: to see which apps are already installed, remove some or install new features
- Users: NextCloud can manage multiple users to have a personal storage for all the family members or employees
I’ll introduce each of this three parts now.
In the “Settings” submenu, you can configure many things, with two categories:
- Personal configuration: profile, security (two-factor authentication for example), themes, …
- Administration: with an administrator account, you can also configure things for all users like email server for notifications, encryption, appearance (company logo for example), etc …
For each sub category, you get an intuitive interface with often a short explanation about the page, so I don’t think you’ll need more from me.
If you have any question about the configuration, you can check the NextCloud administrator manual, or ask your question in the comments.
The second menu is more interesting, with the apps catalog.
In the “Your apps” section, you can check in a few clicks which apps you are using and which ones are installed but disabled.
Then, the next entries are here to find and install new apps, with one submenu by category: Customization, Files, Games, Integration, …
For each app, you can check directly if it’s an official app, and install it easily by clicking on “Download and enable”.
Generally, the new app will appear directly in the top bar of NextCloud.
Finally, you can also manage users and groups on NextCloud.
In the “Users” menu, you can create as many users and groups that you need, and flag it as administrator or not.
Groups are useful in some apps.
For example, you can create a group “IT” and share a folder to anyone in the group from the “Files” app.
It’s also possible to import users from an LDAP or other sources like Linux users.
You’ll need to install the corresponding app to use these features.
The web interface is not the only way to use NextCloud.
From the official website, you can download NextCloud for desktop.
It’s available for Windows, macOS and Linux.
The goal of this desktop app is to synchronize your files between your computer and the NextCloud server (like with Dropbox for example).
During the installation, enter the server address (something like http://IP/nextcloud, or http://IP for NextcloudPi).
Then log into your account and grant access to the app.
The last step is to configure how the app handles synchronization:
The first sync will start, and you’ll keep a NextCloud companion in the system tray to check the synchronization status.
As soon as you add a new file in your folder, NextCloud synchronize files instantly.
Android and iOS apps
The same thing is available on your phone (Android and iOS).
It also provides a mobile friendly interface to use NextCloud.
Here is the demo video provided by NextCloud for Android:
As it’s supposed to be a cloud server, you’ll probably want to forward a port on your Internet router to access the NextCloud server.
It’s possible with your domain name or a service like NoIP if you have a dynamic IP address (detailed tutorial here).
In this case, I highly recommend installing an SSL certificate (Let’s Encrypt) and maybe use a two-factor authentication app to block brute force attacks.
You’ll find the documentation about SSL and Apache configuration to do this in the Installation on Linux manual.
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The main interest in NextCloud is to have an unlimited storage space, as you are the host.
But on Raspberry Pi you’re limited by the SD card size.
Even if you can easily get more space than with free providers, it’s often not enough to compete with their premium offers.
If you want to store large files, it’s possible to add an external storage to your Raspberry Pi, a USB disk (I love the mini USB keys like this one on Amazon to do this) for example or even a remote storage (Dropbox, Google Drive, Amazon, other local server).
You’ll find all the documentation here to configure this on your server.
As for any storage idea on Raspberry Pi, remember that the Raspberry Pi SD card is not the safest storage method.
If your SD card crash, you can lose everything on NextCloud.
So remember to make regular backups to another storage (another Pi, a NAS, a USB disk, …).
Files are located in the NextCloud folder, data subfolder.
For example, for the admin user, they are probably in /var/www/html/nextcloud/data/admin/files/
So, make a backup of /var/www/html/nextcloud/data and you’ll be fine.
You can also make an entire backup of the NextCloud folder and the database, to have a chance to reinstall it the same way as it is now.
Check this tutorial for more information on how to backup a Raspberry Pi efficiently.
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That’s it, I think we have seen a good overview of what NextCloud can do on your Raspberry Pi, and how to install it by two different methods.
I’m pretty impressed by the server performance.
I have bad memories of NextCloud on a physical server, with slow access and high load average.
But for now, it seems to work absolutely fine on Raspberry Pi, no load and no lag, great news!.
I’ll probably try to keep it installed on one of my Raspberry Pi and see with a more intense usage how it works.